mercoledì 28 giugno 2017

Servizio dello Sviluppo Umano Integrale
Il Forum mondiale su migrazione e sviluppo (Global Forum on Migration and Development, GFMD) è un processo volontario di consultazione nel quale gli Stati scambiano buone pratiche nell’ambito delle due questioni tra loro correlate. Lo scopo è quello di rafforzare il dialogo e la cooperazione internazionale, volendo favorire il raggiungimento di risultati concreti attraverso delle strategie di azione tangibili. Il decimo GFMD 2017-2018 è co-presieduto da Germania e Marocco e l’incontro di quest’anno si svolgerà a Berlino, dal 28 al 30 giugno 2017. Il tema sarà: “Verso un contratto sociale globale su migrazione e sviluppo”, tre poi saranno i sottotemi che verranno considerati:• Strategie nazionali: rafforzare l’efficacia delle politiche interne
• Partnership multilaterali e bilaterali: creare prospettive per uno sviluppo inclusivo
• Trovare strategie alternative a quelle statali
La Santa Sede, rappresentata da Padre Michael Czerny S.J., prenderà parte alle due tavole rotonde che affronteranno il secondo sottotema, declinandolo rispettivamente in “Oltre le emergenze - creare soluzioni di sviluppo per il mutuo beneficio degli sfollati e delle comunità di destinazione e di origine” e “Promuovere l’impatto di sviluppo dei migranti che fanno ritorno”. Padre Czerny è Sottosegretario della Sezione Migranti & Rifugiati all’interno del Dicastero per il Servizio dello Sviluppo Umano Integrale. La Santa Sede spera che il decimo GFMD possa contribuire allo sviluppo di politiche globali che rafforzino i legami di solidarietà tra i migranti e i Paesi di origine e destinazione.
English
The Global Forum for Migration and Development (GFMD) is a voluntary consultative process in which governments can share their various experiences in migration and development. It is meant to enhance dialogue and international cooperation, and to foster practical and action-oriented outcomes. The Tenth GFMD Summit is co-chaired by Germany and Morocco and is being held in Berlin, 28-30 June 2017. The main theme is "Towards a Global Social Contract on Migration and Development", and three sub-themes will be considered:
•    National Strategies: Enhancing the Effectiveness of Domestic Policies
•    Multilateral and Bilateral Partnerships: Creating Perspectives for Inclusive Development
•    Finding strategies beyond the State
The Holy See, represented by Fr Michael Czerny S.J., will contribute to the two roundtables discussing the second theme, “Moving beyond emergencies – Creating development solutions to the mutual benefit of host and origin communities and displaced persons” and “Fostering the development impact of returning migrants”. Fr Czerny is Under-Secretary of the Migrants & Refugees Section at the Dicastery for promoting Integral Human Development. The Holy See hopes that the 10th GFMD will contribute to the development of global policies that deepen the bonds of solidarity between migrants and their countries of origin and of destination.
Tenth Global Forum on Migration and Development "Towards a Global Social Contract on Migration and Development"
Roundtable 2.1

Moving beyond emergencies – Creating development solutions to the mutual benefit of host and origin communities and displaced persons
Holy See Intervention of Reverend Father Michael Czerny S.J., Undersecretary, Migrants & Refugees Section of the Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development
The human community can offer an adequate response to the needs of forced migrants by paying attention to two linked sets of four dimensions. First, the full human challenge faced by migrants requires others “to welcome, to protect, to promote, and to integrate”1. Second, these relationships must take place while accompanying those forced to flee in the four important phases of their trajectory: in their country of origin, in countries of transition, in the country of destination and integration, and possibly in returning to the country of origin. During the second informal thematic session at the United Nations in New York, “Addressing drivers of migration”, the Holy See held a side event entitled “Ensuring the right of all to remain in dignity, peace and security in their countries of origin” (22 May 2017). As the New York Declaration affirmed, migration must become “orderly, safe, regular and responsible” (§ 16). That is, the most important way of moving beyond emergencies and creating sustainable development solutions which meet the criteria of human dignity, is effectively to guarantee “the right to remain as prior to, as deeper and broader than, the right to migrate. It includes access to the common good, the right to live in dignity, the right to human development.” These rights are the responsibility of one’s own country and one’s own State.2 As Pope John Paul II stated in 1988, “It is a basic human right to live in one’s own country. However this right becomes effective only if the factors that urge people to emigrate are constantly kept under control.”3 Orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration is only possible when people are really free to stay in their place of origin. In mid-April this year, I was privileged to spend part of Holy Week and Easter on the island of Lampedusa. On Easter morning at 3:00 a.m., I went with the Parish Priest to the harbour to meet a boatload of migrants. The dramatic, deeply human moment of arrival did not seem to promise the mutual benefit of host and origin communities. On the contrary, I could not help but think. ‘Here is the arrival of Africa’s best - the youth, the talent, the courage, the hope.’ Yet, it seemed to be a moment of net loss for Africa, without necessarily promising much benefit to those who had survived the dangerous journey and finally arrived on shore. Yet the Catholic Parish of San Gerlando in Lampedusa has discovered an important key to moving beyond the emergency towards durable solutions. For every financial donation is equally divided, half-and-half, to meet the needs of the arriving migrants and of the local poor. This is exercising a very simple, concrete and sound principle for moving beyond emergencies and creating durable development solutions. The 50-50 principle, relatively easy to apply, brings us back to one of the key foundations of the Sustainable Development Goals: to address the needs of people in both developed and developing countries in such a way that “No one is left behind.” Since most displaced persons remain in or near their countries of origins, and similarly the majority of asylum seekers, a permanent and generous funding facility should be established, accessible to the areas, districts or regions receiving large numbers. These are the locations that bear the maximum stress of welcoming and integrating many newcomers, and where conflicts can arise between them and the local established populations which are also very needy. In this way, the arriving poor and the local poor would be equally eligible for much-needed assistance in terms of food, water, clothing, shelter, healthcare, education, communication, security and development. Thus so-called “emergency” funds will in fact move “beyond emergencies” if they obey the sound principle of justice, transparency and good sense of the 50-50 approach. Working towards “sustainable and integral human development” allows each person and all people “to become active agents of their own development. This includes the full integration of migrants into the economic, social, political, and cultural life of the nation, or their choice of a speedy and safe return to their homelands as circumstances permit.”4 This should also include the ongoing integration or reintegration of the host poor and excluded into the local and national economic, social, political, and cultural life. Addressing the Fortune and Time Global Forum in December 2016, Pope Francis expressed exactly why people want to move beyond emergencies: “Inequality between peoples continues to rise, and many communities are impacted directly by war and poverty, or the migration and displacement which flow from them. People want to make their voices heard and express their concerns and fears. They want to make their rightful contribution to their local communities and broader society, and to benefit from the resources and development too often reserved for the few.” These convictions apply to the emergencies of displacement and to the ‘emergencies’ of poverty. If we face them squarely, the Holy Father concludes, we shall “realize that we are living in a moment of hope.”5
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1 Cf. Pope Francis, Address to the International Forum on “Migration and Peace”, 21.02.2017.
2 Michael Czerny S.J., “The Right to Remain,” N.Y., 22.05.2017.
3 John Paul II, Address to the Fourth World Congress on the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Refugees, 9
October 1998.
4 “Ethics in Action” at the Pontifical Academy of Science, 25-26.05.2017.
5 Pope Francis, Greetings to participants of the Fortune-Time Global Forum, 3.12.2016.
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Tenth Global Forum on Migration and Development "Towards a Global Social Contract on Migration and Development"
Roundtable 2.2

Fostering the development impact of returning migrants Holy See Intervention of Reverend Father Michael Czerny S.J., Undersecretary, Migrants & Refugees Section of the Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development
The phenomenon of the returning migrant is probably just as complex as the countless human situations in the previous three moments of human mobility: departure, transit and arrival. For example, migrants might return to their homeland with innovative new ideas for their country, or convinced that ‘the old ways are the best ways’ – the same variations are found in those who never left. Moreover, migrants may return feeling they have succeeded while away or have failed while away – perceptions of success and failure are also true for those who stayed home. The biggest difference is that migrants were away. In this, when returning, they are more like immigrants. Many points which apply to the reception of newcomers by the host-country residents also apply to the welcome and integration of returnees into their family, community, society of origin. This is how Pope Francis addressed asylum seekers and forced migrants: “Too often you have not been welcomed. Forgive the closedness and indifference of our societies, which fear the change of life and mentality that your presence requires. Treated as a burden, as problem, a cost, you are instead a gift.”1 Let me make three points: about the needs of all; about the special situation of returning migrants; and about coercion. Personal and family development is an undeniable right of every human being. The State is responsible to assure the necessary conditions, namely, fair access to  fundamental goods for everyone. These fundamental goods are probably best understood in terms of basic capabilities. They include: to live healthily, to be knowledgeable and spiritual, to enjoy a decent standard of living, and to participate in the life of the community, for both current and future generations.2 Given these fundamental conditions for integral human development, our attitudes and provisions for returning migrants should mirror those for fully participating resident populations. Not more, not less. This brings me to the second point. Tension can develop between local populations who persevered through poverty, conflict or crisis, and returning migrants who left in search of better living and economic conditions. The latter, whatever their situation and motives for returning, might be regarded as ‘other’ and ‘invasive’. They themselves might harbour feelings of loss, failure, anxiety and stress (or, alternatively, of superiority), which will hinder their reintegration. Poor economic prospects and security concerns will further destabilize the physical and psychosocial well-being of the returnee. When return migration is not well managed and where capacities for integration are insufficient, returning migrants can be perceived as a burden or a threat to the social cohesion of receiving communities. An effective best practice would be to facilitate the recognition of professional and vocational training, credentials and experience acquired abroad. For example, communities to which migrants are returning will benefit greatly from trained healthcare workers, teachers, artisans, tradesmen and so on, if they are allowed to practice. Whereas shortsighted self-interest might block them from making their contribution. Pope Francis sees these issues from a fundamental perspective of compassion and integration. When he speaks about “encounter”, his prophetic words apply to those first departing, in transit or arriving, but they also apply to those who are returning: “We are called to promote a culture of mercy based on the rediscovery of encounter with others, a culture in which no one looks at another with indifference or turns away from the suffering of our brothers and sisters.”3 A third point is about coercion. It seems that certain nationalities of new arrivals are immediately repatriated, without any process, without any possibility of appeal. It is a matter of deepest concern if, in the attempt to reduce the number of arrivals, agreements are implemented between a country of origin and a country of destination, in order to reduce or eliminate the recognized rights of those seeking asylum. What holds for migration is also true of most returns. So an absolutely crucial question boils down to the quality - even the ethics - of the return process. Is it free or coerced? Is it transparent or covert? Migration will never be “orderly, safe, regular and responsible” (New York Declaration, paragraph 16) so long as some are forced to return rather than being really free to stay in their new land. Coercion as expulsion, in initial departure or in forced return, introduces a thoroughly toxic element into any receiving community. Whether abroad or after return, migrants will be far more likely to enjoy and foster sustainable development if their choice to move has been free. In conclusion, by considering the needs and potential of returning migrants, this GFMD Roundtable helps us to rediscover what is at the very basis of our concern and should motivate our resolve. “More decisive and constructive action is required,” Pope Francis insists, “one which relies on a universal network of cooperation, based on safeguarding the dignity and centrality of every human person.”4
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1 Pope Francis, Message for the 35th anniversary of the Astalli Centre, 19.04.2016.
2 See the annual UNDP Human Development Report since 1992.
3 Pope Francis, Apostolic Letter, Misericordia et misera, § 20.
4 Pope Francis, Message for the 101st World Day of Migrants and Refugees, 03/09/2014.